Telecommunication cabling is a wide topic. Most generally when we talk about telecommunication cabling, we are talking about twisted pair cabling used to carry telephone and other telecommunication signals inside building and in the cabling otn the telephone company outside plant. In some applications some other cable types (twisted pair, coaxial cable, fiber) are used, but twisted pair is the most commonly used cable type.
The customer premises cabling can be divided to the following parts:
- Campus cabling: Where a site contains more than one building, Campus cable is used to connect and integrate the network within the overall area. EIA/TIA refers to this as Inter-Building Backbone Cable. Backbone Campus Cabling is usually optical fibre based upon 62.5/125um Multimode fibre or single mode fibre. Campus cabling connects the main wiring closets on different buildings.
- Riser/Backbone cables: Riser or Backbone has been traditionally installed using screened or unscreened pair cables. 6 x 4 pair or 25 pair cables are available as standard. Those are used for data and telephones. New data applications are increasingly satisfied by Fibre Optic Cables (typically multimode cables). Riser/Backbone cables are run from the house central wiring closet to wiring closets on different building floors.
- Horizonal cables: Horizonal twisted pair cables provide the communications link between and into specific work areas. The cables are typically wired from wiring closet to the outlet on the working locations. 4 Pair 24 AWG UTP and FTP cables for high speed networks operating at up to 100 Mbps (even faster speeds up to 1Gbit/s is possible with best cables and newest network techniques). In line with EIA/TIA 568A these cables can be used in lengths of up to 90 metres. 24 AWG is the most commonly used thickness for fixed wiring, but in some cases thicker 23 AWG could be used.
- Work area cabling: High performance flexible work area/patch cables are used for localised linking from a wall connection to networked equipment. Patch cables cables are generally available Unscreened or Foil Screened and come in two sizes 0.14mm� (26 AWG) and 0.22mm� (24 AWG).
- Patch cables: Short patch cables are used to do the interconnection in the wiring closet from the connectors on the telecom patch panel to active equipment. Patch cables are also used in datacom/telecom racks to interconnect different commmunication equipment. Patch cables cables are generally available Unscreened or Foil Screened and come in two sizes 0.14mm� (26 AWG) and 0.22mm� (24 AWG).